Rostelecom. Wiki ростелеком


Rostelecom - Vikipedin

Rostelecom (Russian: ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider. Domestic long distance service provides about 50% of the company's revenue; and international long distance calls provide about 25%. From the company's website's "Rostelecom Today" page: "In every region of Russia, Rostelecom acts as a “carriers’ carrier” - interconnecting all local public operators’ networks into a single national network for long-distance service." In other words, if one makes a long distance call or originates Internet contact to or from Russia, it is likely that Rostelecom is providing part of the service. The company's stock trades primarily on the MICEX and RTS.

History[edit]

Prior to 1990, responsibility for the provision of telecommunications services lie at the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. On June 26, 1990, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR established a state-owned joint-stock company Sovtelekom, which was given the rights to operate the telecommunications network of the USSR. On December 30, 1992, by order of the State Property Committee of Russia, a state-owned enterprise Rostelecom, which consisted of 20 state long-distance and international calls, as well as communication equipment Intertelekom was organized.

Throughout the '90s, the company which was part of Svyazinvest, was the sole long-distance operator in Russia. Alongside it, local companies operated in the different regions of Russia under the umbrella of Svyazinvest while Rostelecom connected between their networks. In 2001, these companies were merged to form a number of regional incumbent telecommunications operators: CentreTelecom, SibirTelecom, Dalsvyaz, Uralsvyazinform, VolgaTelecom, North-West Telecom, Southern Telecommunications Company and Dagsvyazinform. On 2011, Svyazinvest was liquidated with the regional subsidiaries merged into Rostelecom.

On October 18, 2006 "Rostelecom" received a certificate of quality of IP-MPLS network and became the ISP backbone. In December 2006, Rostelecom and the telecommunications company KDDI in Japan under the "Transit Europe - Asia" signed an agreement to build a line of Nakhodka - Naoetsu with total bandwidth of 640 Gbit/s instead of the previous 560 Mbit/s.[3]

Operations[edit]

Rostelecom has the largest domestic backbone network (approximately 500 thousand km) and last mile connections to approximately 35 million households in Russia. The Company holds licences to provide a wide range of telecommunications services (telephony, data, TV and value-added solutions) to residential, corporate and governmental subscribers and third party operators across all regions of the Russian Federation. The company offers "Karta Svyazi" a user-friendly prepaid long-distance telephone card service designed to provide telephony and access to the internet for people on the go.

Land network[edit]

The company's network is based on extant Russian fiber-optic cable lines - FOCL. By cable the network is connected to countries in Europe and East Asia.

Fiber-optic cable lines crosses Russian Federation on directions «Moscow — Novorossiysk», «Moscow — Khabarovsk» and «Moscow — Saint Petersburg».

IP transit has been allocated to a separate company, RTComm, using Rostelecom's STM-16 FOCL resources, but Rostelecom is building its own STM-64 (9,9533 Gbit/s) network, which as of August 2006, covered Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Volgograd, Stavropol, and planned to cover the whole of Russia by the end of 2006.

Rostelecom had 29.2 million local fixed-line voice subscribers, 12.4 million mobile voice subscribers, 7.4 million fixed-line broadband subscribers and 5.5 million pay-TV subscribers at the end of the first quarter of 2010.

Satellite network[edit]

Using the services of the Russian Orbital Group, Rostelecom has built its satellite system for its Eastern region, comprising 11 land stations in Siberia and the Russian Far East. Satellite service for the Western region is being built at this time.

Cellular network[edit]

Throughout the 90s Rostelecom created subsidiaries that operated cellular networks in different regions of the country, including NSS, Baikalvestkom, Yeniseikom, SkyLink, Volgograd GSM and Akos which provided mobile services on the territory of 59 regions of Russia, serving more than 13.5 million subscribers. During the 2010s, Rostelecom and its subsidiaries built mobile networks of the third generation in 27 regions of Russia. Total planned to install more than 8 thousand base stations. Suppliers of equipment and solutions for the 3G+ network are Ericsson and Huawei.[4] On April 2013 the company announced the launch of 3G+ networks in the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions, in the south of the Tyumen Oblast and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. This launch followed the introduction of 3G+ services in Perm Krai. Rostelecom’s 3G+ network was installed using HSPA+ technology, providing data transfer speeds of up to 21MB/s, with the possibility of upgrading the network to reach speeds of up to 42MB/s if demand requires. The 3G+ network is LTE-ready, so that only minor modifications will be required before the Company can roll out its 4G (LTE) network in the future.[5] On June 2013 Rostelecom launched its first part of its LTE network in Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics. Besides, the company launched LTE networks in 8 other regions besides Karsnodar Krai by the end of 2013, including Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[6]

In December 2013, Rostelecom board approved a plan to merge its mobile business into Tele2 Russia, former division of Nordic telecoms group Tele2 which sold it in April 2013 to VTB Bank due to the lack of 3G and 4G data licences, limiting its future growth prospects. Rostelecom would get a 45% voting stake in the new company, T2 RTK Holding, in exchange for contributing its standalone mobile subsidiaries and assets, including SkyLink. Tele2 Russia, owned by state-controlled bank VTB and Russian businessmen Yuri Kovalchuk and Alexei Mordashov, will have 55%. Rostelecom and Tele2 Russia together have around 38 million mobile subscribers, or a combined market share of 16%.[7] During the second stage, Rostelecom spun-off its integrated mobile businesses into its new wholly owned subsidiary, RT-Mobile (Russian: РТ-Мобайл), which will be expected to have Rostelecom's mobile licences, including the LTE licences, re-issued to it.[8] Analysts said the deal makes sense as "Rostelecom has been less efficient in rolling out mobile networks. By relying on the Tele2 team in mobile expansion Rostelecom removes risks, while remaining open to an upside".[9] On February 2014 Rostelecom and Tele2 signed a framework agreement on the integration of mobile assets to the authorized capital of the joint venture "T2 Rus Holding". At the first stage of integration, Rostelecom passed seven cellular subsidiaries it owns: "Sky Link", "Nizhny Novgorod Cellular Communications", "Baikalwestcom", " Volgograd GSM" Yenisei Telecom" and ICCO.[10]

Controversy[edit]

The Curious Case of AS12389[edit]

In April 2017, Rostelecom (AS12389) originated 50 prefixes for numerous other autonomous systems (AS). This caused Internet traffic normally destined for these organizations to instead be routed to Rostelecom. The hijacked prefixes belonged to financial institutions (most notably MasterCard and Visa), other telecom companies, and a variety of other organizations.[11] What makes the list of affected networks 'curious' is the high number of financial institutions such as: MasterCard, Visa, Fortis, Alfa-Bank, and more. The other notable characteristic of this event is that the advertisement included several more prefixes that were more specifically defined than the prefixes normally announced, which makes it less likely that these were unintentionally leaked.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Rostelecom at Wikimedia Commons

Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Canada Satellite Cable IPTV MMDS
Major1 Minor See also

1More than 400,000 television service subscribers.

Cable, satellite, and other speciality television providers in Europe

Cable Satellite IPTV Terrestrial Defunct
  • Bulsatcom (Bulgaria)
  • Canal Digital (Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland)
  • CanalDigitaal (Netherlands)
  • Canal (France, Swtizerland)
  • Cosmote TV (Greece)
  • Cyfrowy Polsat (Poland)
  • DIGI (Romania, Hungary)
  • Digit-Alb (Albania)
  • Digiturk (Turkey)
  • D-Smart (Turkey)
  • Focus Sat (Romania)
  • Freesat (UK)
  • Freesat from Sky (UK)
  • Kabelkiosk (Germany)
  • MagtiCom (Georgia)
  • Magio TV (Slovakia)
  • Movistar+ (Spain)
  • Mtel (Bulgaria)
  • MEO (Portugal)
  • NC+ (Poland)
  • NOS (Portugal)
  • NOVA Cyprus
  • NOVA Greece
  • NTV Plus (Russia, Ukraine)
  • Orange S.A. (France, Belgium)
  • Orange Poland
  • Orange Romania
  • Saorsat (Ireland)
  • Sky UK
  • Sky (Germany, Austria)
  • Sky Ireland
  • Sky (Italy)
  • Skylink (Slovakia, Czech Republic)
  • Telekom Hungary
  • Telekom Romania
  • TéléSAT Numérique (Belgium, Luxembourg)
  • Tivù Sat (Italy)
  • TNTSAT(France)
  • Total TV (Balkans)
  • Tricolor TV (Russia, Ukraine)
  • TV Vlaanderen Digitaal (Belgium)
  • UPC Direct (Hungary)
  • Viasat (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania)
  • Viasat Ukraine
  • Vip TV (Croatia)
  • Vivacom (Bulgaria)

vikipedin.com

GoWikipedia - Rostelecom

Rostelecom (Russian: ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider. Domestic long distance service provides about 50% of the company's revenue; and international long distance calls provide about 25%. From the company's website's "Rostelecom Today" page: "In every region of Russia, Rostelecom acts as a “carriers’ carrier” - interconnecting all local public operators’ networks into a single national network for long-distance service." In other words, if one makes a long distance call or originates Internet contact to or from Russia, it is likely that Rostelecom is providing part of the service. The company's stock trades primarily on the MICEX and RTS.

History

Prior to 1990, responsibility for the provision of telecommunications services lie at the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. On June 26, 1990, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR established a state-owned joint-stock company Sovtelekom, which was given the rights to operate the telecommunications network of the USSR. On December 30, 1992, by order of the State Property Committee of Russia, a state-owned enterprise Rostelecom, which consisted of 20 state long-distance and international calls, as well as communication equipment Intertelekom was organized.

Throughout the '90s, the company which was part of Svyazinvest, was the sole long-distance operator in Russia. Alongside it, local companies operated in the different regions of Russia under the umbrella of Svyazinvest while Rostelecom connected between their networks. In 2001, these companies were merged to form a number of regional incumbent telecommunications operators: CentreTelecom, SibirTelecom, Dalsvyaz, Uralsvyazinform, VolgaTelecom, North-West Telecom, Southern Telecommunications Company and Dagsvyazinform. On 2011, Svyazinvest was liquidated with the regional subsidiaries merged into Rostelecom.

On October 18, 2006 "Rostelecom" received a certificate of quality of IP-MPLS network and became the ISP backbone. In December 2006, Rostelecom and the telecommunications company KDDI in Japan under the "Transit Europe - Asia" signed an agreement to build a line of Nakhodka - Naoetsu with total bandwidth of 640 Gbit/s instead of the previous 560 Mbit/s.[3]

Operations

Rostelecom has the largest domestic backbone network (approximately 500 thousand km) and last mile connections to approximately 35 million households in Russia. The Company holds licences to provide a wide range of telecommunications services (telephony, data, TV and value-added solutions) to residential, corporate and governmental subscribers and third party operators across all regions of the Russian Federation. The company offers "Karta Svyazi" a user-friendly prepaid long-distance telephone card service designed to provide telephony and access to the internet for people on the go.

Land network

The company's network is based on extant Russian fiber-optic cable lines - FOCL. By cable the network is connected to countries in Europe and East Asia.

Fiber-optic cable lines crosses Russian Federation on directions «Moscow — Novorossiysk», «Moscow — Khabarovsk» and «Moscow — Saint Petersburg».

IP transit has been allocated to a separate company, RTComm, using Rostelecom's STM-16 FOCL resources, but Rostelecom is building its own STM-64 (9,9533 Gbit/s) network, which as of August 2006, covered Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Volgograd, Stavropol, and planned to cover the whole of Russia by the end of 2006.

Rostelecom had 29.2 million local fixed-line voice subscribers, 12.4 million mobile voice subscribers, 7.4 million fixed-line broadband subscribers and 5.5 million pay-TV subscribers at the end of the first quarter of 2010.

Satellite network

Using the services of the Russian Orbital Group, Rostelecom has built its satellite system for its Eastern region, comprising 11 land stations in Siberia and the Russian Far East. Satellite service for the Western region is being built at this time.

Cellular network

Throughout the 90s Rostelecom created subsidiaries that operated cellular networks in different regions of the country, including NSS, Baikalvestkom, Yeniseikom, SkyLink, Volgograd GSM and Akos which provided mobile services on the territory of 59 regions of Russia, serving more than 13.5 million subscribers. During the 2010s, Rostelecom and its subsidiaries built mobile networks of the third generation in 27 regions of Russia. Total planned to install more than 8 thousand base stations. Suppliers of equipment and solutions for the 3G+ network are Ericsson and Huawei.[4] On April 2013 the company announced the launch of 3G+ networks in the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions, in the south of the Tyumen Oblast and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. This launch followed the introduction of 3G+ services in Perm Krai. Rostelecom’s 3G+ network was installed using HSPA+ technology, providing data transfer speeds of up to 21MB/s, with the possibility of upgrading the network to reach speeds of up to 42MB/s if demand requires. The 3G+ network is LTE-ready, so that only minor modifications will be required before the Company can roll out its 4G (LTE) network in the future.[5] On June 2013 Rostelecom launched its first part of its LTE network in Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics. Besides, the company launched LTE networks in 8 other regions besides Karsnodar Krai by the end of 2013, including Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[6]

In December 2013, Rostelecom board approved a plan to merge its mobile business into Tele2 Russia, former division of Nordic telecoms group Tele2 which sold it in April 2013 to VTB Bank due to the lack of 3G and 4G data licences, limiting its future growth prospects. Rostelecom would get a 45% voting stake in the new company, T2 RTK Holding, in exchange for contributing its standalone mobile subsidiaries and assets, including SkyLink. Tele2 Russia, owned by state-controlled bank VTB and Russian businessmen Yuri Kovalchuk and Alexei Mordashov, will have 55%. Rostelecom and Tele2 Russia together have around 38 million mobile subscribers, or a combined market share of 16%.[7] During the second stage, Rostelecom spun-off its integrated mobile businesses into its new wholly owned subsidiary, RT-Mobile (Russian: РТ-Мобайл), which will be expected to have Rostelecom's mobile licences, including the LTE licences, re-issued to it.[8] Analysts said the deal makes sense as "Rostelecom has been less efficient in rolling out mobile networks. By relying on the Tele2 team in mobile expansion Rostelecom removes risks, while remaining open to an upside".[9] On February 2014 Rostelecom and Tele2 signed a framework agreement on the integration of mobile assets to the authorized capital of the joint venture "T2 Rus Holding". At the first stage of integration, Rostelecom passed seven cellular subsidiaries it owns: "Sky Link", "Nizhny Novgorod Cellular Communications", "Baikalwestcom", " Volgograd GSM" Yenisei Telecom" and ICCO.[10]

Controversy

The Curious Case of AS12389

In April 2017, Rostelecom (AS12389) originated 50 prefixes for numerous other autonomous systems (AS). This caused Internet traffic normally destined for these organizations to instead be routed to Rostelecom. The hijacked prefixes belonged to financial institutions (most notably MasterCard and Visa), other telecom companies, and a variety of other organizations.[11] What makes the list of affected networks 'curious' is the high number of financial institutions such as: MasterCard, Visa, Fortis, Alfa-Bank, and more. The other notable characteristic of this event is that the advertisement included several more prefixes that were more specifically defined than the prefixes normally announced, which makes it less likely that these were unintentionally leaked.

References

External links

Media related to Rostelecom at Wikimedia Commons

Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Canada Satellite Cable IPTV MMDS
Major1 Minor See also

1More than 400,000 television service subscribers.

Cable, satellite, and other speciality television providers in Europe

Cable Satellite IPTV Terrestrial Defunct
  • Bulsatcom (Bulgaria)
  • Canal Digital (Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland)
  • CanalDigitaal (Netherlands)
  • Canal (France, Swtizerland)
  • Cosmote TV (Greece)
  • Cyfrowy Polsat (Poland)
  • DIGI (Romania, Hungary)
  • Digit-Alb (Albania)
  • Digiturk (Turkey)
  • D-Smart (Turkey)
  • Focus Sat (Romania)
  • Freesat (UK)
  • Freesat from Sky (UK)
  • Kabelkiosk (Germany)
  • MagtiCom (Georgia)
  • Magio TV (Slovakia)
  • Movistar+ (Spain)
  • Mtel (Bulgaria)
  • MEO (Portugal)
  • NC+ (Poland)
  • NOS (Portugal)
  • NOVA Cyprus
  • NOVA Greece
  • NTV Plus (Russia, Ukraine)
  • Orange S.A. (France, Belgium)
  • Orange Poland
  • Orange Romania
  • Saorsat (Ireland)
  • Sky UK
  • Sky (Germany, Austria)
  • Sky Ireland
  • Sky (Italy)
  • Skylink (Slovakia, Czech Republic)
  • Telekom Hungary
  • Telekom Romania
  • TéléSAT Numérique (Belgium, Luxembourg)
  • Tivù Sat (Italy)
  • TNTSAT(France)
  • Total TV (Balkans)
  • Tricolor TV (Russia, Ukraine)
  • TV Vlaanderen Digitaal (Belgium)
  • UPC Direct (Hungary)
  • Viasat (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania)
  • Viasat Ukraine
  • Vip TV (Croatia)
  • Vivacom (Bulgaria)

en.gowikipedia.org

Rostelecom - WikiVisually

1. State ownership – State ownership refers to property interests that are vested in the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. State ownership may refer to ownership and control of any asset, industry, or enterprise at any level, the process of bringing an asset into state ownership is called nationalization or municipalization. State ownership is one of the three forms of property ownership, differentiated from private, cooperative and common ownership. In market-based economies, state-owned assets are managed and operated as joint-stock corporations with a government owning either all or a controlling stake of the shares. This form is referred to as a state-owned enterprise. Governments may also use the profitable entities they own to support the general budget, the creation of a state-owned enterprise from other forms of public property is called corporatization. In Soviet-type economies, state property was the dominant form of industry as property, a state-owned enterprise is a commercial enterprise owned by a government entity in a capitalist market or mixed economy. Reasons for state ownership of enterprises are that the enterprise in question is a natural monopoly or because the government is promoting economic development. State-owned enterprises may or may not be expected to operate in a commercial manner. The transformation of entities and government agencies into government-owned corporations is sometimes a precursor to privatization. State capitalist economies are capitalist market economies that have high degrees of government-owned businesses, Public ownership of the means of production is a subset of social ownership, which is the defining characteristic of a socialist economy. However, state ownership and nationalization by themselves are not socialist, as they can exist under a variety of different political. State ownership by itself does not imply social ownership where income rights belong to society as a whole, as such, state ownership is only one possible expression of public ownership, which itself is one variation of the broader concept of social ownership. There is a variety of organizational forms for state-run industry. State ownership is advocated as a form of ownership for practical concerns. Proponents assume that the state, as the representative of the public interest, would manage resources, as a form of social ownership, state ownership may be contrasted with cooperatives and common ownership. Socialist theories and political ideologies that favor state ownership of the means of production may be labelled state socialism, engels argued that state ownership of commercial industry would represent the final stage of capitalism, consisting of ownership and management of large-scale production and manufacture by the state. There is a distinction to be made between state ownership and public property, the former may refer to assets operated by a specific state institution or branch of government, used exclusively by that branch, such as a research laboratory

2. Ticker symbol – A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper, stocks, and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can also be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing

3. Moscow Exchange – Moscow Exchange, the largest exchange group in Russia, operates trading markets in equities, bonds, derivatives, the foreign exchange market, money markets and precious metals. The Moscow Exchange Group also operates Russias central securities depository and the countrys largest clearing service provider, the exchange is a result of December 2011 merger of the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange and the Russian Trading System. Both organisations had been formed in the 1990s and were the leading Russian exchanges for two decades with their MICEX Index and the RTS Index, the merger created a single entity and advanced Russias plans to turn Moscow into an international financial centre. The exchange rebranded in July 2012, the exchange completed its Initial Public Offering on 15 February 2013, raising 15 billion rubles. The IPO, at the time the largest ever held exclusively in Moscow, was more than twice oversubscribed, the Exchange’s shares were included in the MSCI Russia Index as of 26 November 2013. In July 2014 the Central Bank of Russia, the largest shareholder of the exchange, a Russian federal law requires the Central Bank to fully sell its stake in the exchange by 1 January 2016. and Da Vinci Capital Partners. Dmitry Shcheglov, COO, a veteran of Moscow Exchange and its predecessor MICEX, luis Vicente, Head of Risk & Clearing as of September 2013, former risk manager at Brazil’s BM&F Bovespa. Since 2016, the Supervisory Board consists of 12 instead of 15 members previously, alexei Kudrin, a former Russian Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister was elected Chairman of the Moscow Exchange Supervisory Board in June 2014. The Equity & Bond Market is a key platform for Russian businesses to raise capital and for domestic and international investors to access equity, the marketplace is the main trading venue for Russian stocks as well as government, municipal, and corporate bonds. In 2013-2014,16 companies placed stock via Moscow Exchange, raising a total of approximately RUB200 bln, on the fixed income side, more than 400 bond issues were placed, raising more than RUB3.4 trln for issuers. Moscow Exchange includes shares of many of Russia’s largest companies including Gazprom, Sberbank, Rosneft, Lukoil, most global investment banks began to provide their clients with DMA to the Russian market in 2013. As a result of changes, the international central securities depositories Euroclear and Clearstream now offer settlement services for Russian stocks. In addition to attracting international investors to trade on its platform, recent changes to the regulation of pension funds, together with changes to the listing rules, allow more assets of non-state pension funds to be invested into the market. Other legislative changes incentivise retail investors through reduced taxation to invest into stocks, Moscow Exchanges FX and Money Market is a key element of the Russian financial system. The Bank of Russia uses the Exchanges infrastructure to implement monetary policy and provide liquidity to the market through repo transactions, for its domestic and international clients, including banks and corporates, Moscow Exchange offers a range of products to manage liquidity and FX exposure. It is the centre of pricing for RUB and offers many RUB currency pairs, FX Market All transactions on the FX market are centrally cleared by National Clearing Centre. In September 2014, average daily trading volume across all currency pairs was USD22.4 bln, while RUB/USD and RUB/EUR remain the most traded currency pairs, Moscow Exchange also actively promotes trading in other currencies. In particular the RUB/CNY pair has been received by the market and trading in the GBP

4. OTC Markets Group – OTC Markets Group, is an American financial market providing price and liquidity information for almost 10,000 over-the-counter securities. The group has its headquarters in New York City, oTC-traded securities are organized into three markets to inform investors of opportunities and risks, OTCQX, OTCQB and Pink. The company was first established in 1913 as the National Quotation Bureau, for decades, the NQB reported quotations for both stocks and bonds, publishing the quotations in the paper-based Pink Sheets and Yellow Sheets respectively. The publications were named for the color of paper on which they were printed, in September 1999, the NQB introduced the real-time Electronic Quotation Service. The National Quotation Bureau changed its name to Pink Sheets LLC in 2000, the company eventually changed to its current name, OTC Markets Group, in 2010. Today, a network of over 100 broker-dealers price and trade a wide spectrum of securities on the OTC Markets platform, to be quoted on the platform, companies are not required to file with the SEC, although many choose to do so. A wide range of companies are quoted on OTC Markets, including firmly established foreign firms, in addition, many closely held, extremely small and thinly traded U. S. companies have their primary trading on the OTC Markets platform. Many foreign issuers adhere to the requirements of qualified foreign stock exchanges. Many of these issuers do not file periodic reports or make available audited financial statements, making it difficult for investors to find reliable. OTC Markets Group designates securities in one of three markets to indicate the level of financial and corporate disclosure provided by the companies using its quotation system. Apart from the OTCQX market, which has rules that include financial requirements, investors are encouraged to use caution when considering many of these companies for investment. The OTCQX market includes both multinational companies seeking access to U. S. investors and domestic growth companies, to be traded on this tier, companies must undergo a qualitative review by OTC Markets Group. Companies are not required to be registered with or reporting to the SEC, in addition, U. S. companies must be ongoing operations and may not be in bankruptcy, while foreign issuers must meet the requirements of qualified foreign exchanges. Additional oversight of OTCQX securities is provided by requiring every issuer to be sponsored by approved third-party investment banks or law firms, issuers and Designated Advisors For Disclosure for U. S. issuers. The OTCQB market contains a one penny bid price requirement intended to remove companies that are most likely to be the subject of stock fraud schemes. Investor confidence improves when there is information about a company’s ownership structure, professional advisors. International Reporting companies are allowed to upgrade from Pink to OTCQB if they publish their 12g3-2 compliant disclosure online. There is a fee for the OTCQB market of $10,000 per year

5. Telecommunication – Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology and it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is used in its plural form, telecommunications. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth, the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, and the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, in the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could pass a single bit of information. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, in 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres, as a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Homing pigeons have occasionally used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post is thought to have Persians roots and was used by the Romans to aid their military, frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul. The Greeks also conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons, in the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the telegraph in 1837. Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke. Both inventors viewed their device as an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph not as a new device, samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837

6. Moscow – Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament also sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word also meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, puddle, Lithuanian, mazgoti and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, Sanskrit, majjati to drown, Latin, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists. The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality

7. Russia – Russia, also officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians

8. Sergei Ivanov – Sergei Borisovich Ivanov is a Russian senior official and statesman. After the election of Dmitry Medvedev as President of Russia, Ivanov was reappointed a Deputy Prime Minister in Vladimir Putins second government, from December 2011 to August 2016, Ivanov was the Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office. Before joining the administration in Moscow, Ivanov, a fluent speaker of English, served from the late 1970s in Europe and in Africa as a specialist in law. As an employee of the KGB in Soviet Union era, Ivanov became a friend of his colleague Vladimir Putin, Ivanov was born on 31 January 1953 in Leningrad. In 1975 he graduated from the English translation branch of the Department of Philology at Leningrad State University, in the late 1970s Ivanov began a two decades career on the staff of the external intelligence service. In 1976 he completed studies in counterintelligence, graduating from Higher Courses of the KGB in Minsk. Upon graduating in 1976, Ivanov was sent to serve for the Leningrad and Leningrad Oblast KGB Directorate, in the 1980s Ivanov served as the Second Secretary at the Soviet Embassy in Helsinki, working directly under the KGB resident Felix Karasev. In August 1998, Vladimir Putin became head of the FSB, as deputy director of the Federal Security Service, Ivanov solidified his reputation in Moscow as a competent analyst in matters of domestic and external security. In that position, Ivanov replaced Putin as Yeltsins national security adviser upon Putins promotion to the premiership, as secretary, Ivanov was responsible for coordinating the daily work of the council, led by the president. But Ivanovs role as secretary was initially unclear to media observers, at the time of his appointment, the Security Council was a relatively new institution. Between 1992 and Ivanovs appointment in 1999, Yeltsin used the council as political expediency had dictated, Ivanov was named by Vladimir Putin, who had succeeded Yeltsin as President on 31 December 1999, as Russias Minister of Defense in March 2001. That month Ivanov stepped down as secretary of the Defense, Ivanov had resigned from military service around a year earlier, and was a civilian while serving as secretary of the Security Council. Ivanov therefore became Russias first civilian Defense minister, Putin called the personnel changes in Russias security structures coinciding with Ivanovs appointment as Defense minister a step toward demilitarizing public life. Putin also stressed Ivanovs responsibility for overseeing military reform as Defense minister, unsurprisingly to specialists on Russia, Ivanov became bogged down in the sheer difficulty of his duties as Deputy Prime Minister. But despite bureaucratic inertia and corruption in the military, Ivanov did preside over some changes the form of a shift towards a professional army. Although Ivanov was not successful in abandoning the draft, he did downsize it, as Defense Minister, Ivanov worked with U. S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to expand Russian-U. S. Cooperation against international terrorist threats to both states, on May 2001, Ivanov was elected chairman of the Council of Commonwealth of Independent States Defense Ministers. In October 2003 Sergei Ivanov claimed that Russia did not rule out a military strike anywhere in the world if the national interest demands it

9. Landline – A landline telephone refers to a phone that uses a metal wire or fibre optic telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission. In 2003, the CIA reported approximately 1.263 billion main telephone lines worldwide, china had more than any other country at 350 million and the United States was second with 268 million. The United Kingdom has 23.7 million residential fixed homephones, the 2013 statistics show that the total number of fixed-telephone subscribers in the world was about 1.16 billion. The number of landline subscribers continuously decreases due to upgrades in digital technology, a fixed phone line can be hard-wired or cordless and typically refers to the operation of wireless devices or systems in fixed locations such as homes. Fixed wireless devices usually derive their power from the utility mains electricity, unlike mobile wireless or portable wireless. Although mobile and portable systems can be used in fixed locations, efficiency, mobile or portable, battery-powered wireless systems can be used as emergency backups for fixed systems in case of a power blackout or natural disaster. So-called leased lines are invariably of the type, the implications of a land line in this context are security and survivability. For example, a military headquarters might be linked to units by landline to ensure that communication remains possible even if the conventional telephone network is damaged or destroyed. Another example of this is in airports, all air traffic control towers have dedicated lines connected to the police, fire department, hospitals, army, etc. Deployed as a precaution in case of emergency, these can be used at any time, in many countries the landline has not been readily available to most people. In some countries in Africa, the rise in cell phones has outpaced any rise in landline telephones, between 1998 and 2008, Africa added only 2.4 million landlines. However, during this time the number of mobile phone lines that have been subscribed to has skyrocketed. Between 2000 and 2008, cell phone use has risen from less than 2 in 100 people to 33 out of 100. In developing countries it is difficult to install landline copper that is accessible to everyone than it is to install mobile wireless towers that people can connect to from anywhere. In the early 21st century, the telephone has declined due to the advancement of mobile network technology. Some see this happening as soon as the year 2025, in 2004, only about 45% of people in the United States between the ages of 12 and 17 owned cell phones. At that time, they had to rely on landline telephones, in just 4 years time, that percentage climbed to about 71%. That same year,2008, about 77% of adults owned a mobile phone, in the year 2013, 91% of adults in the United States owned a mobile phone

10. Mobile phone – A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the systems of a mobile phone operator. Most modern mobile telephone services use a network architecture, and, therefore. Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to seven billion, penetrating 100% of the global population. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone manufacturers were Samsung, Apple, a handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone. Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships, the race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and this was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology, in 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators, ten years later, in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3. 5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have data transfer speeds. By 2009, it had become clear that, at point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies

11. Internet access – Internet access is the process that enables individuals and organisations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, mobile devices, sometimes via computer networks. Once connected to the Internet, users can access Internet services, such as email, Internet service providers offer Internet access through various technologies that offer a wide range of data signaling rates. Consumer use of the Internet first became popular through dial-up Internet access in the 1990s, by the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster, broadband Internet access technologies. By 2014 this was almost ubiquitous worldwide, with an average connection speed exceeding 4 Mbit/s. Use by a wider audience came in 1995 when restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic were lifted. LANs typically operated at 10 Mbit/s, while modem data-rates grew from 1200 bit/s in the early 1980s, initially, dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs. These dial-up connections did not support use of the Internet protocols. Broadband connections are made using a computers built in Ethernet networking capabilities. Most broadband services provide a continuous always on connection, there is no dial-in process required, made broadband Internet access a public policy issue. In 2000, most Internet access to homes was provided using dial-up, while many businesses, in 2000 there were just under 150 million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions. By 2004, broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were roughly equal at 130 million each, the broadband technologies in widest use are ADSL and cable Internet access. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in telephone and cable plants. In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations, Wireless and satellite Internet are often used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not readily available. Newer technologies being deployed for fixed and mobile broadband access include WiMAX, LTE, starting in roughly 2006, mobile broadband access is increasingly available at the consumer level using 3G and 4G technologies such as HSPA, EV-DO, HSPA+, and LTE. Some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users laptops to local area networks, Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing. Some access points may also provide coin-operated computers, various terms are used, such as public Internet kiosk, public access terminal, and Web payphone. Many hotels also have public terminals, usually fee based and these services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A Wi-Fi hotspot need not be limited to a location since multiple ones combined can cover a whole campus or park

12. Information technology – Information technology is the application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology, the term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that the new technology not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology, based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development, pre-mechanical, mechanical, electromechanical, electronic. This article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940, devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick. Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s, the electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the worlds first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer, although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory, programming was carried out using plugs, the first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948. The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, by comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version. Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes. IBM introduced the first hard drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is stored magnetically on hard disks. Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally, 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly, one of the earliest such systems was IBMs Information Management System, which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later

13. Telecommunications network – A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes, links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals. The transmission links connect the nodes together, the nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal. Each terminal in the network usually has an address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space, for example, businesses need a greater telecommunications network if they plan to expand their company. With Internet, computer, and telephone networks, businesses can allocate their resources efficiently and these core types of networks will be discussed below, Computer network, a computer network consists of computers and devices connected to one another. Information can be transferred from one device to the next, for example, an office filled with computers can share files together on each separate device. Computer networks can range from a local area to a wide area network. The difference between the types of networks is the size and these types of computer networks work at certain speeds, also known as broadband. The Internet network connects computers worldwide, Internet network, access to the network allows users to use many resources. Over time the Internet network will replace books and this will enable users to discover information almost instantly and apply concepts to different situations. The Internet can be used for recreational, governmental, educational, businesses in particular use the Internet network for research or to service customers and clients. Telephone network, the network connects people to one another. This network can be used in a variety of ways, many businesses use the telephone network to route calls and/or service their customers. Some businesses use a network on a greater scale through a private branch exchange. It is a system where a specific business focuses on routing and servicing calls for another business, majority of the time, the telephone network is used around the world for recreational purposes. In general, every telecommunications network conceptually consists of three parts, or planes, The data plane carries the networks users traffic, the actual payload, the control plane carries control information. The management plane carries the operations and administration traffic required for network management, the management plane is sometimes considered a part of the control plane. The data network is used throughout the world to connect individuals

14. Cable television – This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables, analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A cable channel is a television network available via cable television, alternative terms include non-broadcast channel or programming service, the latter being mainly used in legal contexts. Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, MTV, Cartoon Network, E. Eurosport, the abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, in areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large community antennas were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable broadcasting for radio are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924, Cable television has gone through a series of steps of evolution in the United States and Canada. Particularly in Canada, communities with their own signals were fertile cable markets, as viewers wanted to receive American signals. Early systems carried only a maximum of seven channels, using 2,4,5 or 6,7,9,11 and 13, as the equipment was unable to confine the signal discreetly within the assigned channel bandwidth. The reason 4 and 5 along with 6 and 7 could be used together was because of the 4 MHz gap between 4 and 5 and the nearly 90 MHz gap between 6 and 7. Even though eight channels are listed, in systems that maximized 7 channels. As equipment improved, all channels could be utilized, except where a local VHF television station broadcast. Local broadcast channels were not usable for signals deemed to be priority, later, the cable operators began to carry FM radio stations, and encouraged subscribers to connect their FM stereo sets to cable. Before stereo and bilingual TV sound became common, Pay-TV channel sound was added to the FM stereo cable line-ups, about this time, operators expanded beyond the 12-channel dial to use the midband and superband VHF channels adjacent to the high band 7-13 of North American television frequencies. Some operators as in Cornwall, Ontario, used a dual distribution network with Channels 2-13 on each of the two cables, during the 1980s, United States regulations not unlike public, educational, and government access created the beginning of cable-originated live television programming. These stations evolved partially into todays over-the-air digital subchannels, where a main broadcast TV station e. g, many live local programs with local interests were subsequently created all over the United States in most major television markets in the early 1980s. This evolved into todays many cable-only broadcasts of diverse programming, including cable-only produced television movies and miniseries, Cable specialty channels, starting with channels oriented to show movies and large sporting or performance events, diversified further, and narrowcasting became common. By the late 1980s, cable-only signals outnumbered broadcast signals on cable systems, by the mid-1980s in Canada, cable operators were allowed by the regulator to enter into distribution contracts with cable networks on their own. By the 1990s, tiers became common, with customers able to subscribe to different tiers to obtain different selections of additional channels above the basic selection, by subscribing to additional tiers, customers could get specialty channels, movie channels, and foreign channels

15. Earnings before interest and taxes – In accounting and finance, earnings before interest and taxes, is a measure of a firms profit that includes all expenses except interest and income tax expenses. It is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses, when a firm does not have non-operating income, then operating income is sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit. To calculate EBIT, expenses are subtracted from revenues, net income is later obtained by subtracting interest and taxes from the result

16. Net income – In business, net income is an entitys income minus cost of goods sold, expenses and taxes for an accounting period. In the context of the presentation of financial statements, the IFRS Foundation defines net income as synonymous with profit, net income is a distinct accounting concept from profit but the same as net profit. Net income can also be calculated by adding a companys operating income to non-operating income, net income can be distributed among holders of common stock as a dividend or held by the firm as an addition to retained earnings. As profit and earnings are used synonymously for income, net earnings, often, the term income is substituted for net income, yet this is not preferred due to the possible ambiguity. Net income is called the bottom line because it is typically found on the last line of a companys income statement. The items deducted will typically include tax expense, financing expense, likewise, preferred stock dividends will be subtracted too, though they are not an expense. For a merchandising company, subtracted costs may be the cost of goods sold, sales discounts, for a product company advertising, manufacturing, and design and development costs are included

17. Asset – In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value, simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash. The balance sheet of a firm records the value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business, one can classify assets into two major asset classes, tangible assets and intangible assets. Tangible assets contain various subclasses, including current assets and fixed assets, current assets include inventory, while fixed assets include such items as buildings and equipment. Intangible assets are resources and rights that have a value to the firm because they give the firm some kind of advantage in the marketplace. Examples of intangible assets include goodwill, copyrights, trademarks, patents and computer programs, an asset is a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity. One of the most widely accepted accounting definitions of asset is the one used by the International Accounting Standards Board, employees are not considered assets like machinery is, even though they can generate future economic benefits. This is because an entity does not have sufficient control over its employees to satisfy the Frameworks definition of an asset, similarly, in economics an asset is any form in which wealth can be held. The accounting equation is the structure of the balance sheet. It relates assets, liabilities, and owners equity, Assets = Liabilities + Capital Liabilities = Assets − Capital Equity = Assets − Liabilities Assets are listed on the balance sheet. On a companys balance sheet certain divisions are required by generally accepted accounting principles, Assets can be divided into e. g. current assets and fixed assets, often with further subdivisions such as cash, receivables and inventory. Assets are formally controlled and managed within larger organizations via the use of asset tracking tools and these monitor the purchasing, upgrading, servicing, licensing, disposal etc. of both physical and non-physical assets. Current assets are cash and other assets expected to be converted to cash or consumed either in a year or in the operating cycle and these assets are continually turned over in the course of a business during normal business activity. There are 5 major items included into current assets, Cash and cash equivalents – it is the most liquid asset, which includes currency, deposit accounts, short-term investments – include securities bought and held for sale in the near future to generate income on short-term price differences. Receivables – usually reported as net of allowance for non-collectable accounts, inventory – trading these assets is a normal business of a company. The inventory value reported on the sheet is usually the historical cost or fair market value. This is known as the lower of cost or market rule, prepaid expenses – these are expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed

18. Equity (finance) – In accounting, equity is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owed. Equity can be negative if liabilities exceeds assets, shareholders equity represents the equity of a company as divided among shareholders of common or preferred stock. Negative shareholders equity is often referred to as a shareholders deficit, alternatively, equity can also refer to the capital stock of a corporation. The value of the stock depends on the future economic prospects. For a company in liquidation proceedings, the equity is that which remains after all liabilities have been paid, when starting a business, the owners fund the business to finance various operations. Throughout the businesss existence, the equity of the business will be the difference between its assets and debt liabilities, this is the accounting equation, when a business liquidates during bankruptcy, the proceeds from the assets are used to reimburse creditors. The creditors are ranked by priority, with secured creditors being paid first, other creditors being paid next, owners equity is this remaining or residual claim against assets, which is paid only after all other creditors are paid. In such cases where even creditors could not get money to pay their bills. In financial accounting, owners equity consists of the net assets of an entity, net assets is the difference between the total assets and total liabilities. Equity appears on the sheet, one of the four primary financial statements. The assets of an entity can be tangible and intangible items. Intangible assets include such as brand names, copyrights or goodwill. Tangible assets include land, equipment, and cash, issue of new equity in which the firm obtains new capital increases the total shareholders equity. Share repurchases, in which a firm returns money to investors, reducing on the side its financial assets. For practical purposes, share repurchasing is similar to a dividend payment, rather than giving money to all shareholders immediately in the form of a dividend payment, a share repurchase reduces the number of shares outstanding. Dividends paid out to preferred stock owners are considered an expense to be subtracted from net income, sometimes assets bought and held in other countries get translated back into the reporting currency at different exchange rates, resulting in a changed value. When the owners are shareholders, the interest can be called shareholders equity, the remains the same. If all shareholders are in one and the class, they share equally in ownership equity from all perspectives

19. Vnesheconombank – Vnesheconombank is a Russian government-owned development bank, meant to provide funding for projects aimed at developing the Russian economy. It is not involved in banking activities. The Russian government uses VEB to support and develop the Russian economy and to manage Russian state debts and it is a part in the governments plan to diversify the Russian economy, and to do so receives funds directly from the federal state budget. The bank was instituted in 1922, from 2005 to 2006, both the assets and liabilities of the bank doubled from around $6 billion to $12 billion, and the income rose from $239 million to $301 million. Sergey Nikolaevich Gorkov has been Chairman since February 26,2016, Gorkov was previously the deputy chairman of the board at Sberbank, Russia’s largest state-owned bank. VEB was first established in 1922 as Ruskombank, and in 1924 it was renamed Vneshtorgbank of the USSR and it was finally renamed Vnesheconombank of the USSR in 1988. In April 2007 Russias State Duma passes the federal law On Bank for Development, in July 2014 the United States Department of the Treasury imposed sanctions that prohibit U. S. persons from providing new financing to VEB after the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine. In March 2017, Jared Kushner volunteered to discuss with the United States Senate Intelligence committee Kushners relationship and any meetings with Sergey Gorkov, during Donald Trumps transition December 2016, these meetings were held in Trump Tower in New York City and had been arranged by Sergey I. Kislyak, Russias Ambassador to the United States, EXIAR Official homepage VEB history website Financial information

20. Tele2 Russia – Tele2 Russia is a Russian telecommunications company founded in 2001 by the Swedish group Tele2, based on networks it acquired in Russia. It Provides cellular services more than 23 million subscribers in 41 subjects of the Russian Federation, since April 2013 the company is no more related to the Swedish Tele2. Functions as a group of companies, the name of the parent structure of the holding - Limited Liability Company T2 RTK Holding. Mobile telecommunication services are provided by LLC T2 Mobile in Russia, the companys headquarters are located in Moscow. In December 2004, Tele2 Sverige AB acquired the U. S. MCT Corporation, Votek Mobile provides cellular telephony standard AMPS / DAMPS in the Voronezh region and had a GSM-1800 license to this region. The total subscriber base of the acquired companies accounted for more than 250 thousand subscribers, the cost of the deal - $35 million. On August 13,2007 Tele2 Russia signed with VimpelCom national roaming agreement for 10 years, TELE2 simultaneously sold the company VimpelCom its operations in Irkutsk for 1.6 billion kronor. On October 5,2007 the company announced the acquisition of a subsidiary of JSC SMARTS in Krasnodar territory LLC Telecom Eurasia for 24.5 million U. S. dollars, Telecom Eurasia was created on 2 June 1999. On October 1,2007 has about 32 thousand subscribers in the region, October 18,2007, a subsidiary of «TELE2 Russia, JSC Tele2- Kemerovo contest was won for licenses to provide cellular services GSM-1800 in Tomsk region. Thus, only in 2007 was obtained 18 licenses for 17 regions, the deal amounted to about U. S. $2 million. On November 27,2008 TELE2 announced the acquisition of a network in the Kaliningrad region. On September 21,2010 the company announced the provision of services to its customers in the national roaming mobile operator MegaFon. On April 12,2011 in the competition number 1/2011 TELE2 won the right to provide mobile communication GSM-1800 in Chukotka, Sakhalin and Kamchatsky Krai. On April 26,2011 in the competition number 4/2011 TELE2 won the right to provide mobile communication GSM-1800 in the Magadan Oblast, September 1,2011 Tele2 has updated line tariffs and clearance in Russia changed the overall design of the countries where Tele2. September 20,2011 the company announced the resumption of cooperation in the sphere of national roaming with Beeline, on February 28,2013, the company announced the provision of services to its customers due to national roaming mobile operator MTS. On March 27,2013 it was announced that the Swedish group Tele2 decided to sell Russian subsidiary Tele2 Russia VTB Group, June 24,2013 the company announced the acquisition of mobile operator Voronezh Kodotel. On February 2014 Tele2 Russia has introduced the SFH technology on its network in the Smolensk region, the technology enables improved call transfer and GPRS speeds, raising the base station efficiency by 20 percent. The SFH enables the operator to serve each call with the nearest base station, in October 2015 the company introduced its services in Moscow and Moscow Oblast, after it installed around 5,000 3G base stations and 2,000 LTE base stations

21. Russian language – Russian is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages and it is also the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers, the language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English, Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. This distinction is found between pairs of almost all consonants and is one of the most distinguishing features of the language, another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family and it is a lineal descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus. From the point of view of the language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. In the 19th century, the language was often called Great Russian to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called White Russian and Ukrainian, however, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language and it is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a hard target language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in American world policy. The standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language, mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755, in 1783 the Russian Academys first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the education system that was established by the Soviet government. Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features are observed in colloquial speech. Thus, the Russian language is the 6th largest in the world by number of speakers, after English, Mandarin, Hindi/Urdu, Spanish, Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a choice for both Russian as a second language and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics, samuel P. Huntington wrote in the Clash of Civilizations, During the heyday of the Soviet Union, Russian was the lingua franca from Prague to Hanoi

22. Long-distance calling – In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area. Long-distance calls are charged a higher billing rate than local calls. The term is not necessarily synonymous with placing calls to another area code. Before direct distance dialing all long-distance calls were established by special switchboard operators even in exchanges where calls within the exchange were dialed directly. Completion of long-distance calls was time-consuming and costly as each call was handled by operators in multiple cities. Record keeping was more complex, as the duration of every toll call had to be manually recorded for billing purposes. In some countries, such as Canada and the United States, in 1892, AT&T built an interconnected long-distance telephone network, which reached from New York to Chicago, the technological limit for non-amplified wiring. The invention of loading coils extended the range to Denver in 1911 and this process, nevertheless, involved five intermediary telephone operators and took 23 minutes to connect by manually patching in the route of the call. On October 9,1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held, yesterday afternoon the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3, 400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the inventor of the telephone, was in New York. They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago, the ten digit call was connected automatically within 18 seconds. The first subscriber trunk dialling in the United Kingdom was deployed December 5,1958 with Elizabeth II placing a call from Bristol to Edinburgh. International calling After World War II, priority was given by AT&T in the USA, thus, when TAT-1 was opened for service, it was connected to international gateway offices at White Plains, NY and London that were already automated for domestic calls. These were designed to be able to automatically switch outward and inward international circuits as soon as common signalling standards could be negotiated, International Direct Dialling from London to Paris was first offered in March 1963, with Amsterdam following by the end of 1963. Operator-dialed transpacific calling to Hawaii, Japan, and Australia began with the completion of the COMPAC cable, also in 1963. By mid-1968, transatlantic cable capacity had increased to the point where scheduling calls between Western Europe, the UK, and USA was no necessary and calls were completed on demand. Transatlantic International Direct Dialing between New York City and London was introduced in 1970, with service extended to the whole of the USA and this smart network was further refined to provide toll-free number portability in the 1990s

23. Internet in Russia – Internet in Russia or Russian Internet and sometimes Runet is a part of the Internet which is related to Russia. As of 2015 Internet access in Russia is available to businesses and to users in various forms, including dial-up, cable, DSL, FTTH, mobile, wireless. In 2009, internet penetration had reached 35% - mainly 18–24 years old in urban areas, while 15% of Russians used internet daily, 54% had never used it. 49% of internet users were in Moscow - where, as in St. Petersburg, in September 2011 Russia overtook Germany on the European market with the highest number of unique visitors online. In March 2013 a survey found that Russian had become the second most commonly used language on the web, Internet in Russia is also sometimes called Runet, although that term mostly refers to the Russian-language Internet. Russians are strong users of social networks, of which Odnoklassniki. ru, LiveJournal has also been long popular. Computing systems became known in the USSR by the 1950s, the scientists used several locations in the USSR for their works, the largest was a massive test range to the West from Lake Balkhash. In the meantime amateur radio all over USSR were conducting P2P connections with their comrades worldwide using data codes. Later, a massive automated data network called Express was launched in 1972 to serve the needs of Russian Railways, from the early 1980s the All Union Scientific Research Institute for Applied Computerized Systems was working to implement data connections over the X.25 telephone protocol. The other participating countries were the UK, USA, Canada, Sweden, FRG, GDR, Italy, Finland, Philippines, Guatemala, Japan, Thailand, Luxembourg, Denmark, Brazil, SFMT provided email service using the PeaceNet platform and multi-language support. It also undertook several slowscan video links between the two countries, including supporting physicians such as UCLAs Bob Gale in treating patients exposed in the Chernobyl accident and it later founded a for profit phone and data provider SovAm Teleport in the later 80s. Meanwhile, on April 1,1984 a Fools Day hoax about Kremlin computer Kremvax was made in the English-speaking Usenet, there are reports of spontaneous Internet connections from home through X.25 in the USSR in as early as 1988. In 1990 a GlasNet non-profit initiative by the US-based Association for Progressive Communications sponsored Internet usage in several projects in the USSR. After the fall of the USSR many former Soviet state-controlled structures were inherited by the Russian Federation, with the transformation of the economy, market-based telecommunication industries grew quickly, various ISPs appeared. Meanwhile, the first Russian FidoNet node reportedly started in October 1990 in Novosibirsk, Russian FidoNet activity did contribute to the development of Runet, as mass-networking over BBSes was for a time more popular than over the Internet in the early 90s. In March 1991, the National Science Foundation began to allow Eastern Bloc countries to connect to the global TCP/IP network, by the mid-1990s, computer networks appeared in many branches of regular life and commerce in Post-Soviet states. The Internet became a means of communication for anyone in the world who spoke Russian. National so-called Nets of former Soviet Republics began to occur, in subsequent years test results were considered successful, but new organizational problems appeared, including obscurities with distribution of funds assigned by state

24. Stock – The stock of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the number of shares. In liquidation, the stock represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt. Stockholders equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the companys creditors, the stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares, the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. Additional shares may subsequently be authorized by the shareholders and issued by the company. In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value, in other jurisdictions, however, shares of stock may be issued without associated par value. Shares represent a fraction of ownership in a business, a business may declare different types of shares, each having distinctive ownership rules, privileges, or share values. Ownership of shares may be documented by issuance of a stock certificate. A stock certificate is a document that specifies the amount of shares owned by the shareholder. Stock typically takes the form of shares of common stock or preferred stock. As a unit of ownership, common stock typically carries voting rights that can be exercised in corporate decisions, shares of such stock are called convertible preferred shares. New equity issue may have specific legal clauses attached that differentiate them from previous issues of the issuer. Some shares of stock may be issued without the typical voting rights, for instance, or some shares may have special rights unique to them. Often, new issues that have not been registered with a governing body may be restricted from resale for certain periods of time. Preferred stock may be hybrid by having the qualities of bonds of fixed returns and they also have preference in the payment of dividends over common stock and also have been given preference at the time of liquidation over common stock. They have other features of accumulation in dividend, Rule 144 Stock is an American term given to shares of stock subject to SEC Rule 144, Selling Restricted and Control Securities. Under Rule 144, restricted and controlled securities are acquired in unregistered form, investors either purchase or take ownership of these securities through private sales from the issuing company or from an affiliate of the issuer. Investors wishing to sell these securities are subject to different rules than those selling traditional common or preferred stock and these individuals will only be allowed to liquidate their securities after meeting the specific conditions set forth by SEC Rule 144

25. Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange – The Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange or MICEX was one of the largest universal stock exchanges in the Russian Federation and East Europe. MICEX opened in 1992 and was the leading Russian stock exchange, about 239 Russian companies were listed, with a market capitalization of US$950 billion as of December 2010. MICEX consisted of about 550 participating organizations and members, which trade for their clients, in 2006 the volume of transactions on the MICEX reached 20.38 trillion rubles, representing more than 90% of the total turnover of the leading stock exchanges in the Russian stock market. In 2011 MICEX merged with Russian Trading System creating Moscow Exchange, MICEX started with currency auctions in November 1989 as an initiative by the Foreign trade and investment bank of the USSR. Thus, for the first time the market exchange rate to dollar was established. In January 1992 it became the platform for carrying out currency transactions for banks. Until July 1992 the rate in the Moscow Interbank Stock Exchange was used by the Central Bank for the quotation of ruble to foreign currencies. In the mid-1990s preparation for trading securities and futures began. On 19 December 2011, MICEX merged with Russian Trading System, hence forth to be known as MICEX-RTS, the full merger of the organisational structure is not yet completed. The united exchange is undergoing a rebranding, with the new identity to be unveiled in the first half of 2012. Russian Trading System Stock Exchange Official website List of dividend stocks traded on MICEX MICEX Index Overview

26. Russian Trading System – The Russian Trading System was a stock market established in 1995 in Moscow, consolidating various regional trading floors into one exchange. Originally RTS was modeled on NASDAQs trading and settlement software, in 1998 the exchange went on line with its own in-house system, initially created as a non-profit organisation, it was transformed into a joint-stock company. In 2011 MICEX merged with RTS creating Moscow Exchange, the RTS Index now is the official indicator of Moscow Exchange, was first calculated on September 1,1995. The RTSI is a composite index calculated based on prices of the 50 most liquid Russian stocks. The Index is calculated in time and denominated in US dollars

27. KDDI – KDDI Corporation is a Japanese telecommunications operator formed in October 1,2000 through the merger of DDI Corp. It has its headquarters in the Garden Air Tower in Iidabashi, Chiyoda, KDDI provides mobile cellular services using the au by KDDI brand. ADSL broadband services carry the brand name ADSL One, and IP telephony over copper is branded as Metal Plus, on April 1,2002, au by KDDI launched 3G networks using CDMA2000 1x technology.4 Mbit/s. On December 2006, au by KDDI became the first carrier to provide an EV-DO Rev A service at a rate of 3. 1Mbit/s,1. 8Mbit/s. Au by KDDI has been successful with its EZ wireless data services, EZweb, [email protected], EZappli, EZchakuuta, ezmovie. It supports both Java ME and BREW application environments, in November 2004 au by KDDI introduced the music include ringtone download service Chaku Uta Full, for download of full length songs to mobile phones. Within six months from introduction, on June 15,2005, as of end of June 2005, au by KDDI has 20,122,700 customers, among which 18,723,200 are 3G CDMA2000 subscribers. It is Japans second-largest cellular operator with an increasing 20. 0% market share, on January 26,2006, the first pointing local search application, Mapion Local Search - Powered by GeoVector, was launched on the KDDI network on their GPS and compass equipped handsets. KDDI announced that it will collaborate with the Taiwanese manufacturer HTC Corp. to sell the mobile phone HTC J in Japan starting May 2012, the HTC J mobile phone will feature the Android 4.0 operating system. On October 21,2011 KDDI buys Content Delivery Network CDNetworks For $167 Million, KDDI together with Sumitomo Group signed an agreement with Myanmar State owned Myanmar Post and Telecommunication in July 2014 to jointly operate a mobile phone service in Myanmar for next 10 years. Consumer showroom is set in Harajuku called, KDDI Designing Studio, tU-KA, a subsidiary company of KDDI, was a 2G PDC cellular operator in three metropolitan areas, which did not apply a 3G license. TU-KA was best known for having singer Ayumi Hamasaki to appear in their commercials, tU-KA was closed on March 31,2008. DDI Pocket, a PHS operator, was owned by KDDI but has now been spun off as Willcom. The pipeline was expected to be completed by 2016-end, KDDI and Ericsson began working together in December 2015 in order to research and develop 5G technology. In 2003, several class action complaints were filed against DDI for misrepresenting and/or failing to disclose material facts about the Companys financial results, the parties agreed on a $4.4 million settlement in 2006

28. Nakhodka – The Nakhodka Bay, around which the city is organized, was found in 1859 by the Russian corvette Amerika, which sought shelter in the bay during a storm. In honor of this occasion, the ice-free and relatively calm bay was named Nakhodka, an imperial settlement existed here from 1868 to 1872 but was abandoned following the death of its administer, Harold Furuhjelm. In the fall of 1870, Otto Wilhelm Lindholm established a station across the bay from the settlement. In the spring of 1871 he fitted out his schooner Hannah Rice and sailed to Pasiet, until the 20th century, the area around the bay remained uninhabited, with the first settlement a small fishing village founded in 1907. When the Soviet government decided to build a harbor in the area in the 1930s, a number of settlements were founded. On May 18,1950, the settlement, by then with a population of about 28,000 residents, was granted town status, as a municipal division, Nakhodka City Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Nakhodkinsky Urban Okrug. Nakhodka has one of the mildest climates in Primorsky Krai and in the whole of the Asian part of Russia thanks to its southerly location, average temperature in January is −9.3 °C, in August, it is +20.6 °C. The citys economy, based mostly around the port and port-related activity such as processing and canning, has suffered since 1991 as Vladivostok was opened to foreign activity again. Local industry also took a hit during the 1998 Russian financial crisis, however, Nakhodka has been declared a free economic zone, and the governments in both Moscow and Vladivostok have seemed interested in opening the city further to foreign investment. As of 2010, there are 1,932 enterprises listed, there are 646 retail stores,210 public catering entities,9 markets. Annual turnover tops 13,1 bln rubles, there operate many malls, supermarkets, federal chain store outlets in the city, the examples being Svyaznoy, Yevroset, Eldorado, and many others. Citys enterprises make their entry in the 100 best goods of Russia nationwide contest, among numerous others, there was also opened a consulting center for young entrepreneurs, a collaboration of sister-cities municipalities of Nakhodka and Bellingham, United States. FC Okean Nakhodka is the professional sport club in the city. It spent the 1992 and 1993 seasons in the Russian Premier League and it is also the home town of association football player Viktor Fayzulin. Nakhodka has the following sister city relationships, ^1 First Soviet Union-Japan sister city Законодательное Собрание Приморского края, Закон №161-КЗ от14 ноября2001 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края», в ред, Закона №673-КЗ от6 октября2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Приморского края Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Красное знамя Приморья, №69,29 ноября2001 г, Закон №183-КЗ от6 декабря2004 г

29. Optical fiber – An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors. Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with an index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters, being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication. This is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common, in this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together. Another common technique is a splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors, the field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. The term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany who is acknowledged as the father of fiber optics. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon, John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London,12 years later. When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular. If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27′, for flint glass it is 38°41′, unpigmented human hairs have also been shown to act as an optical fiber. Practical applications, such as close internal illumination during dentistry, appeared early in the twentieth century, image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. The principle was first used for medical examinations by Heinrich Lamm in the following decade

30. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, wide, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. For the second part also the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h2regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa

31. East Asia – East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes China, Taiwan, Mongolia, Korea and Japan, it covers about 12,000,000 km2, or about 28% of the Asian continent, the East Asian people comprise more than 1.5 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, the overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre, about three times the world average of 45/km2. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, major religions include Buddhism, Confucianism or Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion in China and Taiwan, Shinto in Japan, Korean shamanism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongolians and other populations of northern East Asia. The Chinese calendar is the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived, Chinese Dynasties dominated the region in matters of culture, trade, and exploration as well as militarily for a very long time. There are records of tributes sent overseas from the kingdoms of Korea. There were also considerable levels of cultural and religious exchange between the Chinese and other regional Dynasties and Kingdoms, as connections began to strengthen with the Western world, Chinas power began to diminish. Around the same time, Japan solidified itself as a nation state, throughout World War II, Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam all fell under Japanese control. Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia, there are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not. Vietnam Siberia in Russia Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea, however, in this context, the term Far East is often more appropriate which covers ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term Asia Pacific Region is often used in describing East Asia and this usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both East Asia and Northeast Asia. The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea, the military and economic superpower of China became the largest economy in the world in 2014, surpassing the United States of America. Currently in East Asia, trading systems are open, and zero or low duties on imports of consumer and capital goods etc. have considerably helped stimulate cost-efficiency. Free and flexible labor and other markets are important factors making for high levels of business-economic performance. East Asian populations have demonstrated highly positive work ethics, there are relatively large and fast-growing markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds. The culture of East Asia has been influenced by the civilisation of China, East Asia, as well as Vietnam, share a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, political and legal structures, and historically a common writing system

32. Novorossiysk – Novorossiysk is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for exporting grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City, in antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the grain trade. It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others, genoese merchants from the Ghisolfi family maintained a trade outpost there in the Middle Ages. Archaeological investigation of the area is in its infancy, but some interesting items have already been uncovered, from 1722, the bay was commanded by the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale or Soğucak. Named after the province of Novorossiya, the port formed a link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line. During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly and it was granted city status in 1866 and became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire, in 1896. In December 1905, the city was the seat of the short-lived Novorossiysk Republic, from August 26,1918 until March 27,1920, Novorossiysk was the principal center of Denikins White Army. Denikins South Russian Government was moved to Crimea and many Whites escaped from Novorossiysk to Constantinople, most of the town was occupied by the German and Romanian Armies on September 10,1942. A small unit of Soviet sailors defended one part of the town, known as Malaya Zemlya, for 225 days beginning on February 4,1943, and the town was liberated by the Red Army on September 16,1943. The heroic defense of the port by the sailors allowed the Soviets to retain possession of the citys bay, Novorossiysk was awarded the title Hero City in 1973. In 1960, the town was commemorated in Dmitri Shostakovichs work Novorossiysk Chimes, in 2003, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree setting up a naval base for the Black Sea Fleet in Novorossiysk. Russia has allocated 12.3 billion rubles for the construction of the new base between 2007 and 2012, the construction of other facilities and infrastructure at the base, including units for coastal troops, aviation and logistics, will continue beyond 2012. In 2014 the naval base remained incomplete, completion is scheduled for 2016. The Russian lease on port facilities in Sevastopol, which, though the base of Russias Black Sea Fleet, is part of Ukraine, was set to expire in 2017. As a municipal division, the City of Novorossiysk is incorporated as Novorossiysk Urban Okrug, Novorossiysk has a humid subtropical climate. The city sprawls along the shore of the non-freezing Tsemess Bay and it is the busiest oil port in the Black Sea and the terminus of the pipeline from the Tengiz Field, developed by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium. Novorossiysk is also a city, dependent on steel, food processing

33. Khabarovsk – The city also became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia in 2002. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, as of the 2010 Census, its population was 577,441. The Russian explorers and raiders of the 1650s set up a number of more or less fortified camps on the Amur, most of them were in use for only a few months, the fort was named after the local tribe whom Khabarovs people called Achans. Already on October 8 the fort was attacked by joint forces of Achans and Duchers. Similar campaign was waged later in winter against the Ducher chief Nechiga, once the ice on the Amur broke in the spring of 1652, Khabarovs people destroyed their fort and sailed away. The exact location of Khabarovs Achansk has long been a subject for the debate among Russian historians, as to the Cape Kyrma ruins, thought by Maack to be the remains of Achansk, B. P. Polevoy identified them as the remains of another ostrog - namely, Kosogorsky Ostrog, after the Treaty of Nerchinsk, the area became an uncontested part of the Qing Empire for the next century and a half. Modern historical maps of the Qing period published in China mark the site of future Khabarovsk as Bólì, all of the middle and lower Amur region was nominally part of the Jilin Province, run first out of Ninguta and later out of Jilin City. French Jesuits who sailed along the Ussury and the Amur in 1709 prepared the first more or less precise map of the region, according to them, the indigenous Nanai people were living on the Ussury and on the Amur down to the mouth of the Dondon River. These people were known to the Chinese as Yupi Dazi, in 1858, the area was ceded to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. The Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka, named after Yerofey Khabarov, the post later became an important industrial center for the region. Town status was granted in 1880, in 1893, it was given its present name, in 1894, a department of Russian Geographical Society was formed in Khabarovsk and to found libraries, theatres and museums in the city. Since then, Khabarovsks cultural life has flourished, the Khabarovsk Art Museum exhibits a rare collection of old Russian icons. In 1916, the Khabarovsk Bridge across the Amur was completed, Chinese Emperor Puyi, captured by Soviet troops in Manchuria, was relocated to Khabarovsk and lived there from 1945 up to 1950, when he was returned to China. On 5 November 1956, the first phase of the city tram was commissioned, the Khabarovsk television studio began broadcasting in 1960. On 1 September 1967, the Khabarovsk Institute of Physical Education, now the Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture, on 14 January 1971 Khabarovsk was awarded the Order of October Revolution. In 1975 the first stage of the urban trolley opened, in 1976 the city hosted an international ice hockey tournament with the ball for the prize of the newspaper Sovietskaya Rossia. In 1981 the Bandy World Championship was played in the city, in 1996, Khabarovsk held its first mayoral elections

34. Saint Petersburg – Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a then called Ingermanland. A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life

35. Synchronous optical networking – At low transmission rates data can also be transferred via an electrical interface. SONET generic criteria are detailed in Telcordia Technologies Generic Requirements document GR-253-CORE, Generic criteria applicable to SONET and other transmission systems are found in Telcordia GR-499-CORE. The primary difficulty in doing this prior to SONET/SDH was that the sources of these various circuits were different. This meant that circuit was actually operating at a slightly different rate. SONET/SDH allowed for the transport of many different circuits of differing origin within a single framing protocol. SONET/SDH is not a protocol in itself, but a transport protocol. It quickly evolved mapping structures and concatenated payload containers to transport ATM connections, both SDH and SONET are widely used today, SONET in the United States and Canada, and SDH in the rest of the world. Although the SONET standards were developed before SDH, it is considered a variation of SDH because of SDHs greater worldwide market penetration, SONET is subdivided into four sublayer with some factor such as the path, line, section and physical layer. The SDH standard was defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, and is formalized as International Telecommunication Union standards G.707, G.783, G.784. The SONET standard was defined by Telcordia and American National Standards Institute standard T1.105, which define the set of transmission formats and transmission rates in the range above 51.840 Mbit/s. SDH differs from Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy in that the rates that are used to transport the data on SONET/SDH are tightly synchronized across the entire network. This synchronization system allows entire inter-country networks to operate synchronously, greatly reducing the amount of buffering required between elements in the network. Therefore, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols in and of themselves, they are generic, the basic format of a SONET/SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its virtual container, because it is bandwidth-flexible. SONET and SDH often use different terms to describe identical features or functions and this can cause confusion and exaggerate their differences. With a few exceptions, SDH can be thought of as a superset of SONET, SONET is a set of transport containers that allow for delivery of a variety of protocols, including traditional telephony, ATM, Ethernet, and TCP/IP traffic. SONET therefore is not in itself a native communications protocol and should not be confused as being necessarily connection-oriented in the way that term is usually used, the protocol is a heavily multiplexed structure, with the header interleaved between the data in a complex way. This permits the data to have its own frame rate and be able to float around relative to the SDH/SONET frame structure. This interleaving permits a low latency for the encapsulated data

36. Rostov-on-Don – Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the part of the East European Plain on the Don River,32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov. The southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta, from ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian, Sarmat, and Savromat tribes and it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth. It was co-located with a named for Dimitry of Rostov. Azov, a closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don. In 1756, the Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople was founded at the settlement on the high bank of the Don. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate, in 1806, it was officially renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its connections with Russias interior, Rostov developed into a major trade center. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh, concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of a foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began, the harbor was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia, especially for the export of wheat, timber, and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don, the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged, the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the neighboring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don, by 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don

37. Krasnodar – Krasnodar is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately 148 kilometers northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 744,995, Krasnodar was founded on January 12,1794 as Yekaterinodar. City status was granted in 1867, on December 7,1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar. The new name consists of Krasno-, and dar, in the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks, gaining official town status in 1867. By 1888 about 45,000 people lived in the city, in 1897 an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossacks was erected in Yekaterinodar. During the Russian Civil War the city changed several times, coming successively under the control of the Red Army. Many Kuban Cossacks, as committed anti-Bolsheviks, supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10,1918, during World War II units of the German Army occupied Krasnodar between August 12,1942 and February 12,1943. The city sustained damage in the fighting, but was rebuilt. German forces, including Gestapo and mobile SS execution squads, killed thousands of Jews, Communists, shooting, hanging, burning, and even gas vans were used. In the summer of 1943 the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis, the first such trial took place at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17,1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were carried out in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people. Krasnodar is the center of the krai. As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug, Krasnodar is home to the steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928, it is located near Krasnodar Circus. Other attractions include St. There, there are situated many sights of Krasnodar, at the beginning of this street one can see the Central Concert Hall, at the other end one can see the Avrora cinema center. A Triumphal Arch is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street, theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe. This fountain was inaugurated on September 25,2011 along with the official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar. Krasnodar is the center of southern Russia

38. Volgograd – Volgograd, formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometers long, north to south and is situated on the bank of the Volga River, after which the city was named. The city became famous for its resistance during the Battle of Stalingrad against the German Army in World War II and it is often regarded as the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn located at the confluence of the Tsaritsa, grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su as part of the defences of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank and it soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement. In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky for six months, in 1608 the city acquired its first stone church, St. John the Baptist. At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people, in 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress, they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin held the fortress, in 1717 in the Kuban pogrom, raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city, in 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate, in 1719 to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people, in 1773 the city became the provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty, in 1780 the city came under the newly established Saratov Governorate. In the 19th century Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center, the population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900. The first railroad reached the town in 1862, the first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the citys first electric lights were installed in the city center, during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White troops under the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, Pyotr Krasnov, the Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia under the command of General Denikin captured Tsaritsyn, the fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn. The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10,1925 and this was officially to recognize the citys and Stalins role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920. In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta became a district of Stalingrad, renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon, it became the largest area of the city

39. Stavropol – Stavropol is a city and the administrative center of Stavropol Krai, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 398,539, the name Stavropol is a Russian rendition of the Greek name, Stauropolis, meaning the City of the Cross. According to legend, soldiers found a stone cross there while building the fortress in the future location. The Cherkess call the city Shetkala meaning Shet fort and it was founded on October 22,1777 following the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 as a military encampment, and was granted city status in 1785. Prince Grigory Potemkin, who founded Stavropol as one of ten fortresses built between Azov and Mozdok at the request of Catherine the Great, played a role in the creation of the city. Don Cossacks, particularly those from the Khopersky Regiment, settled the area in and around the cities of Stavropol, alexander I in 1809 invited several Armenian families to settle by the fortress, in order to encourage trade in the region. Stavropols strategic location aided in the Russian Empires conquest of the Caucasus, by the early 19th century the city grew into a busy trade center of the North Caucasus. In 1843, an Episcopal see of the Russian Orthodox Church was established in Stavropol, during the Russian Civil War the city changed hands several times and finally was captured by the Red Army from the Volunteer Army of general Anton Denikin on January 29,1920. The city was renamed Voroshilovsk on May 5,1935, after Kliment Voroshilov, the city was recaptured by the Soviet Army in January,1943. Since 1946, natural gas has been extracted near the city, later on, Stavropol is the administrative center of the krai. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Stavropol is incorporated as Stavropol Urban Okrug, stavropols economy focuses on the production of automobiles, furniture, and construction equipment and materials. The city relies on air transport, rail, and highway connections to other Russian cities, stavropols population includes a significant number of refugees escaping the strife or instability of the Russian border regions and Caucasus nations to the south. Stavropol has a theatre and a football team called FC Dynamo Stavropol. The main educational institutions of the town include Stavropol State University, North-Caucasus State Technical University, Agrarian University, the area of Russia in which Stavropol resides is very mountainous, placing the city in the midst of the northern Caucasus mountain range. The city has one of the biggest city parks in Russia, the city, like many other Russian cities has its own botanical garden, which covers up to 18 hectares, including 16 hectares of natural woods. Stavropol experiences a continental climate with short but cold winters. Precipitation is rather low, with a 562 millimeters annual average, gorbachevs chief mentor, long-time friend, and predecessor Yuri Andropov was also born in Stavropol Krai. Stavropol is twinned with, Des Moines, Iowa, United States Béziers, France Pazardzhik, Bulgaria Yerevan, Armenia Zhenjiang, Решение №81 от25 апреля2008 г

40. Siberia – Siberia is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of Russia since the 17th century, the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. It stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the borders of Mongolia. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russias land area and this is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, the origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that Siberia originates from the Siberian Tatar word for sleeping land, another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, a folk, which spoke a language that later evolved into the Ugric languages. This ethnic group was assimilated to the Siberian Tatar people. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empires conquest of the Siberian Khanate, a further variant claims that the region was named after the Xibe people. The Polish historian Chycliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the word for north. He said that the neighbouring Chinese, Arabs and Mongolians would not have known Russian and he suggests that the name is a combination of two words, su and bir. The region is of significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs, Yuka and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a rhinoceros from the Kolyma River. The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earths geological history. They continued for a million years and are considered a cause of the Great Dying about 250 million years ago. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago, H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the last was determined in 2010, by DNA evidence, to be a new species. Siberia was inhabited by different groups of such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians. The Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630, the Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century, turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century

41. Russian Far East – The Russian Far East is the Russian part of the Far East, i. e. the extreme east parts of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean. The Far Eastern Federal District, which covers this area, borders with the Siberian Federal District to the west. The Far Eastern Federal District has land borders with the Peoples Republic of China and North Korea to the south west and maritime borders with Japan, although traditionally considered part of Siberia, the Russian Far East is categorized separately from Siberia in Russian regional schemes. In Russia, the region is referred to as just Far East. What is known in English as the Far East is usually referred to as the Asia-Pacific Region, primorskaya Oblast was established as a separate administrative division of the Russian Empire in 1856, with its administrative center at Khabarovsk. Until 2000, the Russian Far East lacked officially defined boundaries, a single term Siberia and the Far East was often used to refer to Russias regions east of the Urals without drawing a clear distinction between Siberia and the Far East. Since 2000, the term Far East has been used in Russia to refer to the federal district. Defined by the boundaries of the district, the Far East has an area of 6.2 million square kilometers—over one-third of Russias total area. Russia in the early 1900s persistently sought a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean for the navy as well as to facilitate maritime trade, the recently established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok was operational only during the summer season, but Port Arthur in Manchuria was operational all year. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the failure of the 1903 negotiations between Japan and the Tsarss government, Japan chose war to protect its domination of Korea and adjacent territories. Russia, meanwhile, saw war as a means of distracting its populace from government repression, Japan issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japans declaration of war was received by the Russian Government, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the Russian Far East Fleet at Port Arthur, eight days later Russia declared war on Japan. Japan also received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin from Russia, between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deported over 200,000 Koreans to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle due to starvation, illness. Many community leaders were purged and executed, Koryo-saram were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia for the next 15 years, Koreans were also not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of Koryo-mar and the use of Russian. Development of numerous remote locations relied on GULAG labour camps during Stalins rule, after that, the large-scale use of forced labour waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by relatively high wages. Indeed, Japan turned its interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Japanese and the Soviets frequently happened on the border of Manchuria between 1938 and 1945, the first confrontation occurred in Primorsky Krai, the Battle of Lake Khasan was an attempted military incursion of Manchukuo into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union

wikivisually.com

Rostelecom - Wiki

Prior to 1990, responsibility for the provision of telecommunications services lie at the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. On June 26, 1990, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR established a state-owned joint-stock company Sovtelekom, which was given the rights to operate the telecommunications network of the USSR. On December 30, 1992, by order of the State Property Committee of Russia, a state-owned enterprise Rostelecom, which consisted of 20 state long-distance and international calls, as well as communication equipment Intertelekom was organized.

Throughout the '90s, the company which was part of Svyazinvest, was the sole long-distance operator in Russia. Alongside it, local companies operated in the different regions of Russia under the umbrella of Svyazinvest while Rostelecom connected between their networks. In 2001, these companies were merged to form a number of regional incumbent telecommunications operators: CentreTelecom, SibirTelecom, Dalsvyaz, Uralsvyazinform, VolgaTelecom, North-West Telecom, Southern Telecommunications Company and Dagsvyazinform. On 2011, Svyazinvest was liquidated with the regional subsidiaries merged into Rostelecom.

On October 18, 2006 "Rostelecom" received a certificate of quality of IP-MPLS network and became the ISP backbone. In December 2006, Rostelecom and the telecommunications company KDDI in Japan under the "Transit Europe - Asia" signed an agreement to build a line of Nakhodka - Naoetsu with total bandwidth of 640 Gbit/s instead of the previous 560 Mbit/s.[3]

Rostelecom has the largest domestic backbone network (approximately 500 thousand km) and last mile connections to approximately 35 million households in Russia. The Company holds licences to provide a wide range of telecommunications services (telephony, data, TV and value-added solutions) to residential, corporate and governmental subscribers and third party operators across all regions of the Russian Federation. The company offers "Karta Svyazi" a user-friendly prepaid long-distance telephone card service designed to provide telephony and access to the internet for people on the go.

Land network

The company's network is based on extant Russian fiber-optic cable lines - FOCL. By cable the network is connected to countries in Europe and East Asia.

Fiber-optic cable lines crosses Russian Federation on directions «Moscow — Novorossiysk», «Moscow — Khabarovsk» and «Moscow — Saint Petersburg».

IP transit has been allocated to a separate company, RTComm, using Rostelecom's STM-16 FOCL resources, but Rostelecom is building its own STM-64 (9,9533 Gbit/s) network, which as of August 2006, covered Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Volgograd, Stavropol, and planned to cover the whole of Russia by the end of 2006.

Rostelecom had 29.2 million local fixed-line voice subscribers, 12.4 million mobile voice subscribers, 7.4 million fixed-line broadband subscribers and 5.5 million pay-TV subscribers at the end of the first quarter of 2010.

Satellite network

Using the services of the Russian Orbital Group, Rostelecom has built its satellite system for its Eastern region, comprising 11 land stations in Siberia and the Russian Far East. Satellite service for the Western region is being built at this time.

Cellular network

Throughout the 90s Rostelecom created subsidiaries that operated cellular networks in different regions of the country, including NSS, Baikalvestkom, Yeniseikom, SkyLink, Volgograd GSM and Akos which provided mobile services on the territory of 59 regions of Russia, serving more than 13.5 million subscribers. During the 2010s, Rostelecom and its subsidiaries built mobile networks of the third generation in 27 regions of Russia. Total planned to install more than 8 thousand base stations. Suppliers of equipment and solutions for the 3G+ network are Ericsson and Huawei.[4] On April 2013 the company announced the launch of 3G+ networks in the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions, in the south of the Tyumen Oblast and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. This launch followed the introduction of 3G+ services in Perm Krai. Rostelecom’s 3G+ network was installed using HSPA+ technology, providing data transfer speeds of up to 21MB/s, with the possibility of upgrading the network to reach speeds of up to 42MB/s if demand requires. The 3G+ network is LTE-ready, so that only minor modifications will be required before the Company can roll out its 4G (LTE) network in the future.[5] On June 2013 Rostelecom launched its first part of its LTE network in Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics. Besides, the company launched LTE networks in 8 other regions besides Karsnodar Krai by the end of 2013, including Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[6]

In December 2013, Rostelecom board approved a plan to merge its mobile business into Tele2 Russia, former division of Nordic telecoms group Tele2 which sold it in April 2013 to VTB Bank due to the lack of 3G and 4G data licences, limiting its future growth prospects. Rostelecom would get a 45% voting stake in the new company, T2 RTK Holding, in exchange for contributing its standalone mobile subsidiaries and assets, including SkyLink. Tele2 Russia, owned by state-controlled bank VTB and Russian businessmen Yuri Kovalchuk and Alexei Mordashov, will have 55%. Rostelecom and Tele2 Russia together have around 38 million mobile subscribers, or a combined market share of 16%.[7] During the second stage, Rostelecom spun-off its integrated mobile businesses into its new wholly owned subsidiary, RT-Mobile (Russian: РТ-Мобайл), which will be expected to have Rostelecom's mobile licences, including the LTE licences, re-issued to it.[8] Analysts said the deal makes sense as "Rostelecom has been less efficient in rolling out mobile networks. By relying on the Tele2 team in mobile expansion Rostelecom removes risks, while remaining open to an upside".[9] On February 2014 Rostelecom and Tele2 signed a framework agreement on the integration of mobile assets to the authorized capital of the joint venture "T2 Rus Holding". At the first stage of integration, Rostelecom passed seven cellular subsidiaries it owns: "Sky Link", "Nizhny Novgorod Cellular Communications", "Baikalwestcom", " Volgograd GSM" Yenisei Telecom" and ICCO.[10]

The Curious Case of AS12389

In April 2017, Rostelecom (AS12389) originated 50 prefixes for numerous other autonomous systems (AS). This caused Internet traffic normally destined for these organizations to instead be routed to Rostelecom. The hijacked prefixes belonged to financial institutions (most notably MasterCard and Visa), other telecom companies, and a variety of other organizations.[11] What makes the list of affected networks 'curious' is the high number of financial institutions such as: MasterCard, Visa, Fortis, Alfa-Bank, and more. The other notable characteristic of this event is that the advertisement included several more prefixes that were more specifically defined than the prefixes normally announced, which makes it less likely that these were unintentionally leaked.

en.wikiredia.com

Wiki: Rostelecom - upcScavenger

Rostelecom (ОАО «Ростелеком») is Russia's leading long-distance telephony provider. Domestic long distance service provides about 50% of the company's revenue; and international long distance calls provide about 25%. From the company's website's "Rostelecom Today" page: "In every region of Russia, Rostelecom acts as a “carriers’ carrier” - interconnecting all local public operators’ networks into a single national network for long-distance service." In other words, if one makes a long distance call or originates Internet contact to or from Russia, it is likely that Rostelecom is providing part of the service. The company's stock trades primarily on the MICEX and RTS.

History Prior to 1990, responsibility for the provision of telecommunications services lie at the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. On June 26, 1990, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR established a state-owned joint-stock company Sovtelekom, which was given the rights to operate the telecommunications network of the USSR. On December 30, 1992, by order of the State Property Committee of Russia, a state-owned enterprise Rostelecom, which consisted of 20 state long-distance and international calls, as well as communication equipment Intertelekom was organized.

Throughout the '90s, the company which was part of Svyazinvest, was the sole long-distance operator in Russia. Alongside it, local companies operated in the different regions of Russia under the umbrella of Svyazinvest while Rostelecom connected between their networks. In 2001, these companies were merged to form a number of regional incumbent telecommunications operators: CentreTelecom, SibirTelecom, Dalsvyaz, Uralsvyazinform, VolgaTelecom, North-West Telecom, Southern Telecommunications Company and Dagsvyazinform. On 2011, Svyazinvest was liquidated with the regional subsidiaries merged into Rostelecom.

On October 18, 2006 "Rostelecom" received a certificate of quality of IP-MPLS network and became the ISP backbone. In December 2006, Rostelecom and the telecommunications company KDDI in Japan under the "Transit Europe - Asia" signed an agreement to build a line of Nakhodka - Naoetsu with total bandwidth of 640 Gbit/s instead of the previous 560 Mbit/s. Россия-Япония: скорость связи вырастет в 1000 раз // CNews.ru, 13.12.2006

Operations Rostelecom has the largest domestic backbone network (approximately 500 thousand km) and last mile connections to approximately 35 million households in Russia. The Company holds licences to provide a wide range of telecommunications services (telephony, data, TV and value-added solutions) to residential, corporate and governmental subscribers and third party operators across all regions of the Russian Federation. The company offers "Karta Svyazi" a user-friendly prepaid long-distance telephone card service designed to provide telephony and access to the internet for people on the go. Land network The company's network is based on extant Russian fiber optics - FOCL. By cable the network is connected to countries in Europe and East Asia.

fiber optics crosses Russian Federation on directions «Moscow — Novorossiysk», «Moscow — Khabarovsk» and «Moscow — Saint Petersburg».

IP transit has been allocated to a separate company, RTComm, using Rostelecom's STM-16 FOCL resources, but Rostelecom is building its own STM-64 (9,9533 Gbit/s) network, which as of August 2006, covered Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Volgograd, Stavropol, and planned to cover the whole of Russia by the end of 2006.

Rostelecom had 29.2 million local fixed-line voice subscribers, 12.4 million mobile voice subscribers, 7.4 million fixed-line broadband subscribers and 5.5 million pay-TV subscribers at the end of the first quarter of 2010.

Satellite network Using the services of the Russian Orbital Group, Rostelecom has built its satellite system for its Eastern region, comprising 11 land stations in Siberia and the Russian Far East. satellite for the Western region is being built at this time. Cellular network Throughout the 90s Rostelecom created subsidiaries that operated cellular networks in different regions of the country, including NSS, Baikalvestkom, Yeniseikom, SkyLink, Volgograd GSM and Akos which provided mobile services on the territory of 59 regions of Russia, serving more than 13.5 million subscribers. During the 2010s, Rostelecom and its subsidiaries built mobile networks of the third generation in 27 regions of Russia. Total planned to install more than 8 thousand base stations. Suppliers of equipment and solutions for the 3G+ network are Ericsson and Huawei. On April 2013 the company announced the launch of 3G+ networks in the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions, in the south of the Tyumen Oblast and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. This launch followed the introduction of 3G+ services in Perm Krai. Rostelecom’s 3G+ network was installed using HSPA+ technology, providing data transfer speeds of up to 21MB/s, with the possibility of upgrading the network to reach speeds of up to 42MB/s if demand requires. The 3G+ network is LTE-ready, so that only minor modifications will be required before the Company can roll out its 4G (LTE) network in the future. On June 2013 Rostelecom launched its first part of its LTE network in Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics. Besides, the company launched LTE networks in 8 other regions besides Karsnodar Krai by the end of 2013, including Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

In December 2013, Rostelecom board approved a plan to merge its mobile business into Tele2 Russia, former division of Nordic telecoms group Tele2 which sold it in April 2013 to VTB Bank due to the lack of 3G and 4G data licences, limiting its future growth prospects. Rostelecom would get a 45% voting stake in the new company, T2 RTK Holding, in exchange for contributing its standalone mobile subsidiaries and assets, including SkyLink. Tele2 Russia, owned by state-controlled bank VTB and Russian businessmen Yuri Kovalchuk and Alexei Mordashov, will have 55%. Rostelecom and Tele2 Russia together have around 38 million mobile subscribers, or a combined market share of 16%. During the second stage, Rostelecom spun-off its integrated mobile businesses into its new wholly owned subsidiary, RT-Mobile (РТ-Мобайл), which will be expected to have Rostelecom's mobile licences, including the LTE licences, re-issued to it. Analysts said the deal makes sense as "Rostelecom has been less efficient in rolling out mobile networks. By relying on the Tele2 team in mobile expansion Rostelecom removes risks, while remaining open to an upside". On February 2014 Rostelecom and Tele2 signed a framework agreement on the integration of mobile assets to the authorized capital of the joint venture "T2 Rus Holding". At the first stage of integration, Rostelecom passed seven cellular subsidiaries it owns: "Sky Link", "Nizhny Novgorod Cellular Communications", "Baikalwestcom", " Volgograd GSM" Yenisei Telecom" and ICCO.

Controversy The Curious Case of AS12389 In April 2017, Rostelecom (AS12389) originated 50 prefixes for numerous other autonomous systems (AS). This caused Internet traffic normally destined for these organizations to instead be routed to Rostelecom. The BGP hijacking prefixes belonged to financial institutions (most notably MasterCard and Visa), other telecom companies, and a variety of other organizations. What makes the list of affected networks 'curious' is the high number of financial institutions such as: MasterCard, Visa, Fortis, Alfa-Bank, and more. The other notable characteristic of this event is that the advertisement included several more prefixes that were more specifically defined than the prefixes normally announced, which makes it less likely that these were unintentionally leaked. External links Categories: Telecommunications Companies Of Russia, Internet Service Providers Of Russia, Mobile Phone Companies Of Russia, Digital Television, Internet Television, Government-owned Companies Of Russia, Companies Based In Moscow, Telecommunications Companies Established In 1993, 1993 Establishments In Russia, Companies Listed On The Moscow Exchange, Russian Brands

www.upcscavenger.com


Смотрите также